Both Israelis and Palestinians have historical and religious ties to the land, specifically Jerusalem. This shared history has led to competing national narratives and claims to the same territory.
The creation of the state of Israel in 1948 resulted in the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, leading to longstanding resentment and refugee issues. Palestinians refer to this as the Nakba, or "catastrophe."
Israel's establishment of settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem has been a major point of contention. Palestinians view these settlements as illegal under international law and as a significant obstacle to the establishment of a future Palestinian state.
Disputes over borders and territory, particularly in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip, have been a constant source of tension. Both sides have different visions for the borders of their respective states.
Israel cites security concerns, including rocket attacks from Gaza and suicide bombings, as reasons for military actions and the implementation of strict security measures, such as the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier.
The political division between Fatah, which governs the West Bank, and Hamas, which controls Gaza, has led to internal Palestinian tensions. The lack of a unified leadership has complicated peace negotiations and reconciliation efforts.
Access to water resources, particularly in the arid region, has been a source of conflict. Both sides need access to limited water supplies, leading to disputes over usage and distribution.
Various external actors, including neighboring countries and international powers, have historically played roles in the conflict, either by supporting one side or attempting to mediate peace agreements.